United States cannabis laws:
States with medical cannabis laws
States with decriminalization laws
States with both
Elena Kagen, President Obama’s nominee for Supreme Court Justice, urged the Department of Health and Human Services to be more candid about the lack of scientific evidence for medical marijuana. (Download the documents here.)
Washington, D.C., Approves Medical Use of Marijuana
May 4, 2010
New York Times
Attorney General Announces Formal Medical Marijuana Guidelines
October 19, 2009
AP IMPACT: After 40 years, $1 trillion, US War on Drugs has failed to meet any of its goals
May 13, 2010
Drug Enforcement Administration: In The Matter Of MARIJUANA RESCHEDULING PETITION, Docket No. 86-22
September 6, 1988
United States Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration
Carl E. Olsen
Medical Marijuana: A History
May 27, 2002
FDA on Medical Marijuana: Science or Politics?
April 21, 2006
U.S. eases stance on medical marijuana
October 20, 2009
The Washington Post
October 14, 2004
The following studies highlight the therapeutic effects of medical cannabis on atherosclerosis, schizophrenia (and other psychotic disorders), Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis spasticity, and several cancer tumors. There is evidence that doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or varying cannabinoids has analgesic effects for patients with cancer, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and HIV. It also increases the appetite of patients undergoing chemotherapy and treatment for HIV or suffering from anorexia.
Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice
April 7, 2005
Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Moreira FA, Guimarães FS
A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology
Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, Koob GF, Olson AJ, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD
[Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation
February 23, 2005
The Journal of Neuroscience
9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Cdc2 Regulation
July 1, 2006
American Association for Cancer Research
María M. Caffarel, David Sarrió, José Palacios, Manuel Guzmán and Cristina Sánchez
Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas
August 15, 2004
American Association for Cancer Research
Cristina Blázquez, Luis González-Feria, Luis Álvarez, Amador Haro, M. Llanos Casanova and Manuel Guzmán
Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells
The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Salazar M, Carracedo A, Salanueva IJ
Antitumorigenic Effects of Cannabinoids beyond Apoptosis
February 1, 2010
N. Freimuth, R. Ramer, and B. Hinz. J.
Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis
D. R. Blake, P. Robson1, M. Ho, R. W. Jubb and C. S. McCabe
Smoked Medicinal Cannabis for Neuropathic Pain in HIV: A Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial
Analgesic Efficacy of Smoked Cannabis
Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I.
Dose-dependent Effects of Smoked Cannabis on Capsaicin-induced Pain and Hyperalgesia in Healthy Volunteers.
Mechanisms of Cannabinoid Analgesia
Papanastassiou, A.M., Fields, H.L., Meng, I.D., (2004). Local application of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55, 212-2, to spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons.
Cannabis for Treatment of HIV-Related Peripheral Neuropathy
Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL.
Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity
Short-Term Effects of Cannabis Therapy on Spasticity in MS
Corey-Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte T, Bentley H, Gouaux B.Poster presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology (Chicago, IL). 2008.
Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.
Lakhan SE, Rowland M.
Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana
Further studies on appetite stimulation:
Beal, J.E.; Olson, D.O.; Laubenstein, L.; et al. Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. J Pain Symptom Manage 10:89-97, 1995.
Farrow, J.A.; Rees, J.M.; and Worthington-Roberts, B.S. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers. Pediatrics 79:218, 1987.
Foltin, R.W.; Brady, J.V.; and Fischman, M.W. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25:577-582, 1986.
Foltin, R.W.; Fischman, M.W.; and Byrne, M.F. Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite 11:1-14, 1988.
Gorter, R.; Seifried, M.; and Volberding, P. Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 6:127, 1992.
Greenberg, I.; Kuehnle, J.; Mendelson, J.H.; and Bernstein, J.G. Effects of marijuana use on body weight and caloric intake in humans. Psychopharmacology 49:79-84, 1976.
Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease models
February 8, 2007
Anatol C. Kreitzer. Robert C. Malenka